Human rights are a set of rights possessed by every individual, regardless of their nationality, religion, skin color, etc. The definition of these rights as a universal and inalienable, and is guaranteed for all they are human beings.
Human widely rights, and covers a large number of rights; for example: the right to liberty and the right to equality before the law, the right to freedom of movement, the right to acquire a nationality, the right to freedom of association, the right to an adequate standard of living, the right to work , etc …
You can find a list of topics covered by the Human Rights w on the website of the High Commissioner for Human Rights.
Human rights at the international level
The concept of human rights evolves at the international level since 1948, when the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which was drafted by the former Commission on Human Rights, through the United Nations General Assembly adopted.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights and is the first text that Oalnaalmih these rights. It enshrines the 30 fundamental rights that signatory states committed themselves to respect and implement within its territory. Today, many countries, some of these rights in their constitutions included.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights is considered as ideals trying to reach them, and not legally binding. However, it has been accepted by everyone, and is considered the rights enshrined in the Declaration of customary international law.
In order to create a minimum level of protection, the promotion of this announcement quickly by a group of international treaties, in particular the Special Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the International Covenant International Covenant, and finally adopted in 1966. The ratification of this treaty, obliges states to respect and ensure the rights set forth by enacting necessary laws, which are assessed periodically by a group of experts.
Together, the Declaration and Covenants are informally as the “International Bill of Human Rights”, which are the cornerstone of the international system of human rights.
Today there are multiple categories of human rights, and to shed light on the development of this system, there are three generations of rights. Each of these generations covers a different area of protection.
The first generation of rights and referred to as “negative rights”
It is civil and political rights, particularly in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Recipe called “negative” because it means non-interference of the state to promote these rights.
Examples include: the right to life, the right to freedom of expression, the right to freedom from torture, the right to vote, etc.
The second generation of rights and referred to as “positive rights”
It is economic and social rights contained in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. Contrary to the negative rights, these rights require the state to intervene in order to be respected.
Examples include: the right to education, the right to work, right to health, right to food, etc.
The third generation of the rights and referred to as “collective rights”
These rights appear in the first article of the International Covenants, and more recently in the new documents (for example: Declaration on the Right to Development), which shows the continuing evolution of the system, in order to provide better protection for individuals.
Examples include: the right to development, the right to peace, the right to self-determination, and minority rights, etc.
These rights based on the principles of equality and non-discrimination, are indivisible and interdependent: improving access to and the right one creates a positive trend year, while the deprivation of the right to threaten the overall balance of the system.
For more information on the existing treaties, visit the page on the global human rights instruments and basic international human rights instruments.
Human rights at the regional level
It signed other treaties also at the regional level in order to ensure human rights.
The African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights, which was adopted in 1981 (entered into force in 1986) by the Organization of African Unity (African Union day).
American Convention on Human Rights (1969), which Aatmdthanizh of American States.
European Convention on Human Rights, which was signed by the Council of member states in Europe (1953). European Court of Human Rights and shall monitor the implementation of the Convention, and could be held by the victims of human rights violations.
And the Middle East \ North Africa
Arab Charter on Human Rights was adopted in 2004 from Qubljamah Arab countries and entered into force in 2008.